Skip directly to site content Skip directly to end of site content

What Every Woman Needs to Know about Breast and Ovarian Cancers

A little knowledge can go a long way in helping you understand your risk for breast and ovarian cancers. Once you learn your risk for these cancers, we hope you will talk to you doctor and develop a strategy to reduce your risk or detect these diseases at early, non-life-threatening stages.

Breast and Ovarian Cancer Basics

Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the breast, it is called breast cancer. About 7 out of 100 women (or 7%) will be diagnosed with breast cancer by the time they turn 70 years old.

Ovarian cancer is far less common. About 1 out of 100 women (or 1%) will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer by age 70. Though it is less common than breast cancer, ovarian cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system.

About 5–10% of breast and 10-15% of ovarian cancers are hereditary. These hereditary breast and ovarian cancers are caused by inherited changes in genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2.

Breast and Ovarian Cancer Basics for Young Women

While breast and ovarian cancers are most common in older women (about 89% of breast cancers occur in women older than 45 years of age), they can and do occur in younger women. There are some important differences when these cancers do affect young women:

  • Breast and ovarian cancers in young women are more likely to be hereditary (passed down through families and because of an inherited BRCA gene mutation).
  • Breast and ovarian cancers in young women are more likely to be diagnosed at a later stage and are often more aggressive and difficult to treat.
  • Young women can face unique issues when diagnosed, including concerns about body image, fertility, finances, and feelings of isolation.

Steps You Can Take Now

Learn More About Breast and Ovarian Cancers

Every woman can benefit from learning the risk factors and symptoms of breast and ovarian cancers.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer at Any Age

If you have one or more of these factors, it does not mean you will get breast cancer. Talk to your doctor about ways to reduce your risk.

Reproductive Risk Factors

  • Being younger (before age 12) when you first had your menstrual period
  • Starting menopause at a later age (after age 55)
  • Being older (after age 35) at the birth of your first child
  • Never giving birth
  • Never breastfeeding for a long duration (1 year plus)
  • Long-term use of hormone replacement therapy

Other Risk Factors

  • Getting older
  • Personal history of breast cancer or some noncancerous breast diseases
  • Family history of breast cancer
  • Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (ancestors from Central or Eastern Europe)
  • Treatment with radiation therapy to the breast or chest
  • Dense breast tissue – a condition that can be diagnosed by a mammogram
  • Being overweight (increases risk for breast cancer after menopause)
  • Having a mutation in the breast cancer-related genes BRCA1 or BRCA2
  • Drinking alcohol (more than one drink a day)
  • Not getting regular exercise

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

Pay attention to your body and know what is normal for you. If you have any signs that worry you, be sure to see your doctor right away.

  • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit)
  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin
  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood
  • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast

Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer

If you have one or more of these factors, it does not mean you will get ovarian cancer. Talk to your doctor about ways to reduce your risk.

If you have:

  • Reached or are past middle age
  • Never given birth or had trouble getting pregnant
  • A family history of ovarian cancer (mother, sister, aunt, or grandmother)
  • Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry (ancestors from central or Eastern Europe)
  • A mutation in the breast cancer-related BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 genes
  • Been diagnosed with breast, uterine, colorectal (colon), or cervical cancer or melanoma
  • Been diagnosed with endometriosis (a condition where tissue from the lining of the uterus grows elsewhere in the body)

Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Pay attention to your body and know what is normal for you. See a doctor if you have any of these signs for two weeks or longer and they are not normal for you.

  • Vaginal bleeding or discharge from your vagina that is not normal for you
  • Pain in the pelvic or abdominal area (the area below your stomach and between your hip bones)
  • Back pain
  • Bloating, which is when the area below your stomach swells or feels full
  • Feeling full quickly while eating
  • A change in your bathroom habits, such as constipation, diarrhea, or having to pass urine very urgently or very often

Talk to your Doctor

The next time you visit the doctor, consider talking about what you have learned about breast and ovarian cancers.

Be sure to tell your doctor about your family history of cancer (especially breast, ovarian, fallopian tube, pancreatic, and prostate cancers) and about any other risk factors you may have.

If you need help collecting and organizing your family health history, use the U.S. Surgeon General's family health history portrait, https://familyhistory.hhs.gov/.

Together, you and your doctor can develop a personalized strategy to reduce your risk.

 

More About Breast Cancer

What is Breast Cancer?

Sometimes breast cells become abnormal. These abnormal cells grow, divide, and create new cells that the body does not need. The extra cells form a mass called a tumor. Tumors that are not cancer are called "benign". These tumors usually stay in one spot in the breast and do not cause major health problems.

Other tumors are "malignant" and are cancer. When breast cancer first starts to develop, these tumors are generally too small to feel or notice. As they grow, the cancer can spread throughout the breast or to other parts of the body. This causes serious health problems and even death.

There are different kinds of breast cancer. The kind of breast cancer depends on which cells in the breast turn into cancer.

For a more detailed explanation of what breast cancer is and the different types of breast cancer visit: National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Breast Cancer. You may also read the What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer booklet from the National Cancer Institute.

What are the symptoms of breast cancer?

Breast cancer symptoms can include:

  • New lump in the breast or underarm (armpit)
  • Thickening or swelling of part of the breast
  • Irritation or dimpling of breast skin
  • Redness or flaky skin in the nipple area or the breast
  • Pulling in of the nipple or pain in the nipple area
  • Nipple discharge other than breast milk, including blood
  • Any change in the size or the shape of the breast
  • Pain in any area of the breast

Pay attention to your body and know what is normal for you. If you have any signs that worry you, be sure to see a doctor right away. The earlier breast cancer is found and treated, the more likely treatment will be effective.

Do young women get breast cancer?

It is a myth that breast cancer does not affect young women. The reality is that it can and does.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) provides statistics on cancer cases in the United States (https://nccd.cdc.gov/uscs/). The CDC reports that in 2010, there were 209,966 new cases of breast cancer in women. Of these new cases, 21,344 (about 10%) were in women younger than 45 years of age. Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive and harder to treat in some cases than breast cancers in older women.

Can I get breast cancer if it does not run in my family?

Yes, you can get breast cancer even if it does not run in your family. Keep in mind that most women with breast cancer do not have a family history of breast cancer.

How can I detect breast cancer early?

One of the most important things you can do to detect breast cancer is to be really familiar with your breasts. Your breasts can go through normal changes throughout your monthly cycle. Know what is normal for you so you will be able to detect a change.

Mammograms (x-rays of the breast) are the best method to detect breast cancer early when it is easier to treat and before it is big enough to feel or cause symptoms. Mammograms are recommended every two years for women 50-74 years of age.

However, women who are at high risk for developing breast cancer (such as women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation) may choose to begin having mammograms earlier and have them more often than other women. Talk to your doctor about screening recommendations that are right for you. Other breast cancer screening tests (such as breast MRI) may also be recommended for you.

Are mammograms covered by health insurance?

The cost of screening mammograms varies by state and by facility, and the cost can depend on insurance coverage. However, most states have laws that require health insurance companies to reimburse all or part of the cost of mammograms. Women are encouraged to contact their mammography facility or their health insurance company for information about cost and coverage. The American Cancer Society provides information on state efforts to ensure mammograms are covered by health insurance: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/BreastCancer/MoreInformation/BreastCancerEarlyDetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-paying-for-br-ca-screening.

Coverage of mammograms for breast cancer screening is mandated by the Affordable Care Act, which provides that these be given without a co-pay or deductible in plans that started after August 1, 2012. This does not apply to health plans that were in place before the law was passed (called grandfathered plans). You can find out the date your insurance plan started by contacting your health insurance plan administrator. Even grandfathered plans may still have coverage requirements based on state laws, which vary, and other federal laws (http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/moreinformation/breastcancerearlydetection/breast-cancer-early-detection-paying-for-br-ca-screening).

All women 40 years of age and older with Medicaid can get a screening mammogram each year (in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia). Medicaid will also pay for diagnostic mammograms (as often as medically necessary to make a diagnosis).

Talk to your doctor about your breast cancer risk if you are less than 40 years of age and covered by Medicaid. If you and your doctor agree that you are at high risk, talk with your doctor’s billing service about Medicaid coverage for earlier or more frequent exams and breast MRIs.

How can I get a mammogram if I am not insured?

Federal programs offer some assistance to qualifying women who need breast screening and mammograms. Learn more about these programs:

Women can also check with their local hospital, health department, women's center, employers, or other community groups to find out how to access low-cost or free mammograms.